Acute Kidney Injury and Hypertension in COVID-19 Infection

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Persian Gulf Physiology Research Center, Basic Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Department of Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Chronic Renal Failure Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all the infrastructures of human life and has turned
into a global emergency. COVID-19 infection mostly affects the respiratory system but can
also cause multi-organ failure, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). The present review aims to
assess the relationship between COVID-19 and kidney disorders and hypertension. Methods: The six
official databases, namely PubMed, WHO COVID-19 database, Academic Search Premier,
Science Direct, Google Scholar, and CORD-19, were searched for scientific reports (original
articles) using the keywords: “COVID-19”, “Coronavirus”, “SARS CoV-2”, “Kidney disease”,
“Acute renal failure”, “Kidney transplant”, and "Hypertension". A total of 58 articles were
considered for a full review.
Results: The prevalence of AKI was more than 6% prevalent in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, AKI
and hypertension were associated with higher morbidity and mortality. To control
hypertension, there were different opinions and findings regarding the use of angiotensin
receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); however,
most of the studies suggested using these drugs to control blood pressure. AKI is associated
with higher morbidity and mortality rates. Conclusion: A simple urinalysis in patients with suspected
COVID-19 can reveal renal dysfunction at the earlier onset of complication, which may be
very helpful before progressing to late-stage kidney disease. In addition to AKI,
hypertension is considered to be accompanied by a worse prognosis. Further studies must
be performed to clarify all the aspects of using hypertension medications in COVID-19