A Review on the Effective Properties of Crocin in the Management of Cardiopulmonary Dysfunction
Document Type : Review Articles
Background: Cardiopulmonary disorders are defined as a wide range of conditions that affect the heart and respiratory system. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are the leading causes of early death worldwide. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the buffering capacity of the antioxidant defense system, which ultimately causes molecular abnormalities and cellular damage. Natural antioxidants can protect biological systems against these toxic mediators. Crocin, as the main saffron constituent, is a glycosylated carotenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. It shows several pharmacological properties, including protection against cardiovascular and pulmonary system disease, tumor cell proliferation, and neuroprotective activities. Numerous studies have shown the preventive and treatment effects of crocin on various cardiac disorders, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and ischemia/reperfusion, as well as various respiratory disorders, including asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and COPD. Objectives: This paper reviews the documented results of studies on the beneficial effects of crocin on cardiopulmonary diseases. Methods: The scientific papers were identified by research in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct databases. Search terms were combinations of "crocin", "cardiovascular", "pulmonary", "lung", "heart", and "natural products". Results: Current evidence confirms that crocin is a potent preventive and therapeutic agent to decrease inflammation and oxidative damage to enhance the therapeutic outcomes in conditions related to cardiopulmonary problems. Conclusion:These desirable properties promise the future use of crocin as a therapeutic agent in cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, further clinical trials and toxicological studies are needed in this regard.