Pretreatment with Crocin, Carvacrol, and Physical Exercise and Attenuating Motor and Memory Impairments in Hemiparkinsonian Rats by Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

Document Type : Original article

Abstract

Background: Parkinson Disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder caused mainly by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to motor dysfunctions. Non-motor symptoms, including memory impairments, follow the motor symptoms in Parkinson patients. Male Wistar rats ran on a horizontal treadmill and or pretreated with crocin at a dose of 100 mg/kg and carvacrol at a dose of 25 mg/kg for a week. Then, 16 μg 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin, was microinjected into the left medial forebrain bundle, and treatments continued for six more weeks. Aversive memory, rotational behavior, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters were assessed 6 weeks after surgery.Results: The results showed that pretreatment with crocin alone and in combination with exercise decreased the total number of rotations compared with the 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Furthermore, treatment with crocin along with exercise training improved aversive memory. The crocin and exercise (alone and in combination) reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the striatum. Moreover, treatment with crocin decreased the lipid peroxidation levels in the hippocampus, and exercise training increased the total thiol concentration. Treatment with carvacrol and exercise reduced rotational behavior and improved aversive memory deficit, accompanied by decreased lipid peroxidation levels and increased total thiol concentration in the striatum and or hippocampus. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings indicated that pretreatment with crocin as a carotenoid and carvacrol as a phenol along with treadmill exercise ameliorated motor and memory deficits induced by 6-OHDA, which is considered to be due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The results suggest that combined therapy with crocin and exercise or carvacrol and exercise may protect from motor and memory deficits in patients with Parkinson.

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